Where did the word “numismatics” come from? First documented as an English word in the early part of the 1800s, this word derived from a French adjective, numismatiques, which means "of coins." In turn, that word came from the Latin word for “coin.” The meaning of the word gets even more interesting when the Latin word gets traced back to the original Greek that it was borrowed from. After some iterations, the word came from the Greek nemō, or "I dispense or divide."


Know your U.S. coins: Franklin half dollars

Produced from 1948 through 1963, the Franklin half dollar features the Liberty Bell on the reverse.

Images courtesy of PCGS CoinFacts

The Benjamin Franklin half dollar is a series that may ring your bell. Produced from 1948 through 1963, the Franklin half dollar features the Liberty Bell on the reverse.

U.S. Mint Chief Sculptor-Engraver John R. Sinnock's design on the reverse of the Franklin half dollar is also unusual. Although it complies with laws that dictate an eagle must appear on the coin, the small eagle to the side of the Liberty Bell almost appears to be an afterthought. (Sinnock also designed the obverse.)

The obverse of the Franklin half dollar was based on a bust modeled from the original Jean-Antoine Houdon bust sculptured from life when Franklin was ambassador to France.

COIN VALUES: See how much Franklin half dollar coins are worth today

The Commission of Fine Arts rejected the obverse and reverse designs for the Franklin half dollar. However, Treasury officials chose to ignore the commission's recommendation for a design competition and approved both designs.

One of the commission's concerns was that derogatory remarks might be made about the prominent crack depicted on the Liberty Bell. This proved to be unfounded. However, Sinnock's JRS initials appearing on the truncation of Franklin on the obverse were later rumored to stand for Joseph Stalin, the premier of the Soviet Union! The eagle appearing to be flexing its muscles to the right of the Liberty Bell on the reverse is a focal point for many of the varieties of the Franklin half dollar.

There are both high relief and low relief eagle varieties of some dates, as well as variations in the number of feathers depicted on the eagle.

Another variety of interest is the 1955 "Bugs Bunny" coin on which Franklin has the appearance of buck teeth due to clashed die marks.

The mintage figures range from about 2.7 million to about 67 million for the Franklin half dollar series. This was substantial for the series at the time the coins were struck. However, due to melting of many of the coins for their silver content, some of the dates are now scarcer than their mintages indicate.

Based on mintage figures, the key dates in the series are 1948, 1949-S, 1953 and 1955. The most common coin, based on mintage figures, should be the 1963-D.

Proof specimens were struck for Mint sets between 1950 and 1963. The lowest Proof set mintage is 1950. The highest mintage in Proof is 1962.

Cameo finish Proofs appear in some sets. These are early strikes with frosted devices. Such strikes bring a premium value above the price of typical Proof strikes.

The Mint mark D for Denver and S for San Francisco appears above the Liberty Bell on the reverse of Franklin half dollar coins.

There is no Mint mark for coins struck at Philadelphia.

Uncirculated specimens are usually collected by "bell lines." Fully struck bell lines appearing near the bottom of the Liberty Bell on the reverse are desired and bring a premium value higher than Uncirculated specimens without full bell lines.

In his book The Franklin Half Dollar Collector/Investor Guide Lyman L. Allen describes full bell lines: "When the Franklin half is encountered fully struck it will exhibit the three wisps of hair as mentioned, and two sets of horizontal parallel lines near the bottom of the bell on the reverse. These two sets of parallel lines are composed of three raised (four incuse) lines in the upper set, and two raised lines (three incuse) at the bottom. ...

"To qualify all seven incuse lines must show completely across the bell on the reverse, and the three wisps of hair to the right of Franklin's ear must be distinct and not blended together on the obverse."

Allen rates the 1953-S and 1954-S as the poorest strikes in the series, with 1949-S, 1951-S and 1952-S striking quality as "below average."

Rumors of a 1964-dated Franklin half dollar have never been substantiated. The design was changed in 1964 to honor the assassinated President John F. Kennedy.

The Franklin design was used for 15 years.

Keep reading from our "Know Your U.S. Coins" series:

Cents and half cents:

2- and 3-cent coins:


Dimes and half dimes:


Half dollars:


Gold coins:

Community Comments

Numismatics is about more than just coins.

While many people use numismatics as a general term to refer only to the study of coins, this word actually refers to the study of all kinds of money. As such, it includes the study of coins and also paper bills, tokens, and other related objects that have been used as currency by various people throughout history, as well as noncurrency items like medals. Some kinds of money used at different points in history might surprise novice numismatists; for example, a culture might have used shells as a currency. 

Barter, or the trade of objects and services for other objects and services, has long been used in the marketplace and continues today. In some cases, the line between barter and currency still provides a topic of debate, but in most cases, articles about numismatics cover subjects like coins and paper money. Numismatics might become easier to comprehend by understanding the numismatic values of coins and paper money, and this refers to the value of a coin or note that is higher than the intrinsic or face value. In other words, this could also be called the collectible value. For example, a historical gold coin has an inherent value that is based upon its bullion value. It may also have a face value, or the actual value of the money assigned by the country that produced it. However, that same coin might be worth much more than the gold or the face value because it is rare, historically significant, beautiful, and/or designed by a famous artist.

Ultimately, understanding numismatics really depends upon understanding the nature of money. In the past, money might have been shells, gems, or precious metals. Today, most societies rely upon coins and paper money, but in this digital age, even that has begun to change as billions of dollars get exchanged every day electronically without the need for physical currency. Even more revolutionary, there are new digital currencies that have never been based upon any nation's physical currency. As it has in the past, it is likely that the study of numismatics will continue to evolve as currency evolves.