The Benjamin Franklin half dollar is a series that may ring your
bell. Produced from 1948 through 1963, the Franklin half dollar
features the Liberty Bell on the reverse.
U.S. Mint Chief
Sculptor-Engraver John R. Sinnock's design on the reverse of the
Franklin half dollar is also unusual. Although it complies with laws
that dictate an eagle must appear on the coin, the small eagle to the
side of the Liberty Bell almost appears to be an afterthought.
(Sinnock also designed the obverse.)
The obverse of the
Franklin half dollar was based on a bust modeled from the original
Jean-Antoine Houdon bust sculptured from life when Franklin was
ambassador to France.
COIN VALUES: See how much Franklin half dollar coins are
The Commission of Fine Arts rejected the obverse and reverse designs
for the Franklin half dollar. However, Treasury officials chose to
ignore the commission's recommendation for a design competition and
approved both designs.
One of the commission's concerns
was that derogatory remarks might be made about the prominent crack
depicted on the Liberty Bell. This proved to be unfounded. However,
Sinnock's JRS initials appearing on the truncation of Franklin on the
obverse were later rumored to stand for Joseph Stalin, the premier of
the Soviet Union! The eagle appearing to be flexing its muscles to the
right of the Liberty Bell on the reverse is a focal point for many of
the varieties of the Franklin half dollar.
There are both
high relief and low relief eagle varieties of some dates, as well as
variations in the number of feathers depicted on the eagle.
Another variety of interest is the 1955 "Bugs Bunny"
coin on which Franklin has the appearance of buck teeth due to clashed
The mintage figures range from about 2.7
million to about 67 million for the Franklin half dollar series. This
was substantial for the series at the time the coins were struck.
However, due to melting of many of the coins for their silver content,
some of the dates are now scarcer than their mintages indicate.
Based on mintage figures, the key dates in the series are 1948,
1949-S, 1953 and 1955. The most common coin, based on mintage figures,
should be the 1963-D.
Proof specimens were struck for
Mint sets between 1950 and 1963. The lowest Proof set mintage is 1950.
The highest mintage in Proof is 1962.
Cameo finish Proofs
appear in some sets. These are early strikes with frosted devices.
Such strikes bring a premium value above the price of typical Proof
The Mint mark D for Denver and S for San
Francisco appears above the Liberty Bell on the reverse of Franklin
half dollar coins.
There is no Mint mark for coins struck
Uncirculated specimens are usually
collected by "bell lines." Fully struck bell lines appearing
near the bottom of the Liberty Bell on the reverse are desired and
bring a premium value higher than Uncirculated specimens without full
In his book The Franklin Half Dollar
Collector/Investor Guide Lyman L. Allen describes full bell
lines: "When the Franklin half is encountered fully struck it
will exhibit the three wisps of hair as mentioned, and two sets of
horizontal parallel lines near the bottom of the bell on the reverse.
These two sets of parallel lines are composed of three raised (four
incuse) lines in the upper set, and two raised lines (three incuse) at
the bottom. ...
"To qualify all seven incuse lines
must show completely across the bell on the reverse, and the three
wisps of hair to the right of Franklin's ear must be distinct and not
blended together on the obverse."
Allen rates the
1953-S and 1954-S as the poorest strikes in the series, with 1949-S,
1951-S and 1952-S striking quality as "below average."
Rumors of a 1964-dated Franklin half dollar have never been
substantiated. The design was changed in 1964 to honor the
assassinated President John F. Kennedy.
design was used for 15 years.
Keep reading from our "Know Your U.S. Coins" series:
Cents and half cents:
2- and 3-cent coins:
Dimes and half dimes: