Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Great Britain on April 11, 1689.
The overthrow of King James II of England (Mary’s father, also known as James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians in concert with William III paved the way for the coronation, but first the monarchy had to cede many of the rights and much of the power previously in their control to the Parliament.
The Revolution served a religious and political purpose, as the Dutch William III invaded the country and served to ensure that Catholics would not gain control of the monarchy.
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This Declaration of Rights (later a Bill), was drawn up by a convention of Parliament, and limited the sovereign’s power, reaffirmed Parliament’s claim to control taxation and legislation, and provided guarantees against the abuses of power that James II and the other Stuart Kings had committed.
John Roettiers, the chief engraver at the Royal Mint, designed the coronation medal for William III and Mary.
Diarist Samuel Pepys described Roettiers’ medal as “some of the finest pieces of embossed work, that I ever did see in my life.”
The medal was distributed at the coronation to members of Parliament and peers who swore fealty to the new regime.
The obverse shows a conjoined portrait of William and Mary, indicating their status as dual sovereigns. William is portrayed in classical dress, akin to a Roman emperor.
The reverse is more allegorical, according to the Stuart Succession Project at the University of Exeter.